A fountain pen is made up of the following components: Nib Unit Nib and Section Block, Barrel, Ring, and Cap.Ink Cartridges are convenient and easy to use. The cartridges should only be replaced when the ink supply has been depleted. Do not attempt to use more than one cartridge at a time as refills are not interchangeable and the ink will evaporate if exposed to air for a prolonged period of time. It is best to clean the fountain pen when changing cartridges of different colors to avoid bleeding the inks.To insert a cartridge, unscrew the barrel of the fountain pen and insert the narrower end of the new cartridge into the back of the section block with enough pressure to create a snug fit. The pin inside the section block will puncture the seal of the cartridge, allowing the ink to flow into the section block. Screw the barrel on over the cartridge into the section block. Hold a tissue over the nib and shake the ink down through the nib into the cloth to start the ink flow. (You can also lightly squeeze the cartridge after inserting it into the section block to start the ink flow.)To fill the converter, turn shaft counter-clockwise on the converter until the piston head stops. Insert converter in the Nib Unit and press firmly together with a little twist.Insert nib into ink well. Keep entire nib submerged while turning the shaft clockwise until it stops. Remove from ink well and turn knurled grip counter-clockwise just enough to release 3 drops of ink back into bottle, and then turn clockwise again until it stops.Screw barrel back securely onto the nib.NotesStore your fountain pen upright with the nib pointing up, in a pocket, purse or pen cup. This will help drain the ink into the barrel and refill, while avoiding drying or clogging the nib.If your fountain pen will not be used for an extended period of time, remove the ink cartridge (or converter) and nib section to prevent clogging and ink evaporation.The nib of a fountain pen will mold and conform to the individual’s writing style and should not be used by others.Clean the fountain pen between refills of a different color. This will avoid blending the ink colors.A converter that is not being used for ink can be used to flush the nib and section block. Simply draw cool water up through the nib, force the water out, repeating this several times. Dry the nib section block carefully.If your fountain pen becomes clogged, soak the nib in cool water for up to 24 hours.Not all fountain pens will leak during air travel, but the results are unpredictable. Basically, there is always some air in the ink chamber of your pen. As the pressure a change, the air in the ink chamber expands, pushing ink out the chamber and through the nib. As a precaution, fill the pen completely to minimize the amount of air in the chamber. Or travel with the pen empty. Be sure to transport your pen vertical when flying and do not use it while ascending or descending.How to Clean your Fountain PenA fountain pen needs to be cleaned at lease twice a year. To do so, simply remove the ink cartridge or converter and flush the nib and section block with cool water. Dry the nib and section block with a soft cloth. DO NOT use hot water or solvents as this will damage the finish and/or mechanism. If the inside of the cap becomes soiled with ink, wrap a piece of dampened tissue or thin cloth around a match stick to remove the ink.